The Court of Appeal’s answer to this question in HCA International Limited v CMA  EWCA Civ 492 was, in effect: rarely. The judgment, which contains some serious criticism of the CMA even though it won the case, illustrates just how high the threshold is before a court will insist that a remitted decision should go to a new decision-maker. It is not enough for the original decision-maker to have made a mistake, however conspicuous. Rather, there needs to be a reasonable perception of unfairness or damage to public confidence in the regulatory process.
The background was the CMA’s private healthcare market investigation, which determined that HCA should divest itself of two hospitals in central London. That decision was premised in part on the CMA’s insured price analysis (“IPA”), which HCA argued (on an appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal) contained serious flaws. The CMA eventually accepted that its divestment decision should be quashed, and the CAT held that the matter should be remitted to the original CMA inquiry group for re-determination. Continue reading